Category Archives: Book news

recent acquisitions & book reviews

The Silk Road: A New History with Documents

Hansen, Valerie. The Silk Road: A New History with Documents. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.
ISBN: 9780190208929


I was recently delighted to receive the new edition of Valerie Hansen’s Silk Road: a New History, originally published in 2012. The original edition was already much acclaimed for being eminently readable and accessible — my much-thumbed edition accompanied me faithfully on two visits around China — as a guide to the Silk Road, based on up to date scholarship of archaeological and historical sources. It was largely the stories contained in the primary sources which the author drew on that made this such a ‘gripping’ account. The special value of this new edition is that it has been expanded to include 138 pages of those primary sources, many of which were previously only available in a wide range of specialist academic publications. Some are translated into English for the first time.

The sources range from documents dating from the 1st century BC written on woodslips found at Xuanquan Fort to excerpts from Charles Blackmore’s travel account Crossing the Desert of Death (1995). They include memoirs of medieval monks, letters written by women, inscriptions, prayers, legal contracts, and many others. A full list of the documents is available here. The new edition also includes an eighth chapter which takes the history up the period of Mongol rule.

Confusingly published with a copyright date of 2017, more information can be had from OUP’s US site. The book is however available in the UK from Amazon. A copy has also been added to the AIIT Library, shelfmark: AIIT.a.1819.

Ursula Sims-Williams

New to the AIIT

A Dictionary: Christian Sogdian, Syriac and English

A Dictionary: Christian Sogdian, Syriac and English / Nicholas Sims-Williams. Wiesbaden : Reichert Verlag, 2016
17.0 x 24.0 cm, 408 p., cloth
148,00 €
ISBN: 9783954901753
Ancient India & Iran Trust Library shelfmark: AIIT.a.1802

9783954901753This recent publication by our Chairman Nicholas Sims-Williams represents a landmark in the study of Christian Sogdian and at the same time is designed to be accessible both to Iranists, whether or not they know Syriac, and to Syriacists, whether or not they know Sogdian.

Many works of Syriac literature were translated into Sogdian, a Middle Iranian language originating in the region of Samarkand and widely spoken along the so-called “Silk Road”. This Christian Sogdian literature, which includes biblical, liturgical, ascetic and hagiographic texts, is chiefly known from a cache of manuscripts discovered in 1905 at the site of the ruined monastery of Bulayïq in the Turfan oasis. It is important for Syriac studies, since the Sogdian translations were often made on the basis of earlier recensions than those which survive in Syriac and since some texts are no longer extant in Syriac. It is no less important for Sogdian and Middle Iranian studies, since those texts whose Syriac originals can be identified provide a firm basis for the understanding of the Sogdian language; moreover, the material in Syriac script, with its elaborate system of vocalic points, is a unique source of information on the pronunciation of Sogdian.

The present Dictionary consists of two main sections followed by a comprehensive English index. Part 1, arranged by Sogdian lemmata, provides a complete listing of all words attested in published Christian Sogdian texts, both in Syriac and in Sogdian script, including variant spellings, full parsing of all inflected forms, and details of their equivalents in the most closely corresponding Syriac parallel text. In Part 2 the same material is arranged by Syriac lemmata. The two parts together make it possible to see what Syriac form or forms any Sogdian word can represent and how any Syriac word or idiom is translated into Sogdian. The dictionary thus fulfils a range of functions. Firstly, it will provide a reliable guide for anyone who wants to read the extant Christian Sogdian texts; secondly, it will assist future editors in identifying, restoring and translating Christian Sogdian texts; and thirdly, it will contribute to the study of the transmission of literature from Syriac into Sogdian and the techniques of the translators.

The majority of the Christian Sogdian texts from which the dictionary is compiled can be viewed online on the Turfanforschung Digital Archive or on the International Dunhuang Project Database.

Mapping Ming China’s maritime world

針路藍縷 = Mapping Ming China’s maritime world / Zhen lu lan lü = Mapping Ming China’s maritime world /  Hong Kong Maritime Museum. 2 vols. Xianggang : Zhonghua shu ju (Xianggang) you xian gong si, 2015
Hardcover: 808 pages
ISBN-10: 9888366564
ISBN-13: 978-9888366569
Ancient India & Iran Trust Library shelfmark: AIIT.a.1803

611MVvmyMILIn a recent post on facebook, we highlighted Professor Fung Kam Wing’s donation of this two-volume publicatin of  the Hong Kong Maritime Museum. Based on a 2014 international exhibition and symposium: Mapping Ming China’s Maritime World – The Selden Map and Treasures from University of Oxford, this 2-volume set presents a multidisciplinary approach to the sixteenth-century map bring to light the latest research on the historical implications of the Selden Map of China and rutters, underwater archaeology, seafaring and maritime trade, and the relationship between China and Southeast Asia during the Ming dynasty. The book set also reprints in colour the Selden Map and other navigation charts, manuscripts of two Chinese rutters, and a selection of export porcelain.

Volume I is primarily a catalogue of the exhibition, and volume II contains the proceedings of the nineteen papers presented at the symposium.

Further information about the Selden map is available on a dedicated website:


Some recent acquisitions

Arts of the Hellenized East : precious metalwork and gems of the pre-Islamic era

Arts of the Hellenized East: precious metalwork and gems of the pre-Islamic era / Martha L. Carter ; with contributions by Prudence O. Harper and Pieter Meyers. London: Thames & Hudson, 2015. The al-Sabah Collection, Kuwait.

Hardcover | ISBN 9780500970690 | December 2015
424 pages | 350+ colour illustrations | 9 in x 11.2 in x 1.7 in

artsofhellenizedeastThis is the sixth volume in Thames & Hudson’s series exploring the treasures of The al-Sabah Collection, Kuwait. The al-Sabah Collection houses one of the world’s most spectacular collections of ancient silver vessels and other objects made of precious metals and gems, dating from the centuries following Alexander then Great’s conquest of Iran and Bactria in the later 4th century BCE up to the advent of the Islamic era.

Leading expert Martha Carter discusses eighty spectacular bowls, drinking vessels and other luxury items from the Hellenistic East, including many rare and important objects never before reproduced in print. The decorative motifs of these objects…testify both to the astonishing skill of their craftsmen and to the complex interconnected cultural histories of Greece, Iran and Central Asia. These connections are explored further in two illustrated essays. Prudence O. Harper’s discussion of a group of Sasanian and later Central Asian works of art and an essay by Pieter Meyers on the technology of ancient silver production.

Martha L. Carter holds a doctorate from Case Western Reserve University and has taught and curated at institutions including the Cleveland Museum of Art and the University of Wisconsin. She has published extensively on the art and archaeology of India, Iran, and Central Asia.

Prudence O. Harper is Curator Emerita in the Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Pieter Meyers is an independent scholar and Senior Research Chemist at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, where he was formerly Head of Conservation – publisher.

The Ancient India and Iran Trust was delighted to host the UK launch of this visually stunning and informative book in February 2016 and a copy is available at the trust for visitors to view – Shelfmark: AIIT.a.1741

Persian Painting: the arts of the book and portraiture

Persian Painting: the arts of the book and portraiture / Adel T. Adamova and Manijeh Bayani. London: Thames & Hudson, 2015. The al-Sabah Collection, Kuwait.

Hardcover | ISBN 9780500970676 | 2015
552 pages | 450+ colour illustrations |

persianpaintingPersian miniature painting is among the most well-established and celebrated traditions of Islamic art. Written by two eminent scholars specializing in Persian painting and epigraphy, respectively, Persian Painting catalogs more than forty masterpieces of Persian miniature painting, manuscript illustration, and bookbinding in The al-Sabah Collection, Kuwait.

Coauthors Adel T. Adamova and Manijeh Bayani place the works in an artistic and historical context and demonstrate their significance in the development of Persian painting. From a historical perspective, they document the movement of manuscripts through their owners’ seal impressions and librarians’ notes, and identify various works by scribes and illustrators involved in the production of these manuscripts and miniatures.

Richly illustrated and including rare examples from the pre-Mongol invasion period never before reproduced in print, the book (the seventh in Thames & Hudson’s series exploring treasures from the al-Sabah Collection) also includes illustrated folios detached from important fourteenth- and fifteenth-century manuscripts and paintings from dispersed Safavid and post-Safavid albums, as well as seventeenth-century bookbindings and oil paintings from the Zand and Qajar periods.

Adel T. Adamova is a curator at the State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, and a prominent author of numerous books and articles on Persian painting.

Manijeh Bayani is a specialist in Persian epigraphy and has contributed to numerous publications and articles on Persian manuscripts and inscriptions. – publisher.

A copy of Persian Painting is available for reference use at the trust – Shelfmark: AIIT.b.159

The Silk Road – Volume 13 (2015)

The Silk Road is the journal of The Silkroad Foundation, published annually and supplied to academic libraries free of charge. There is also a free online version of the journal available.


Volume 13 of The Silk Road includes a selection of images of Palmyra, a tribute to the memory of Khaled Mohamad al-Asaad, Syrian archaeologist and Head of Antiquities for the ancient city of Palmyra. Khaled al-Assad ‘…devoted much of his life to studying and protecting the antiquities of Palmyra, the World Heritage site in Syria which UNESCO cited as “a great city that was one of the most important cultural centres of the ancient world.” Al-Asaad’s dedication and what it symbolized cost him his life, when Daesh publicly beheaded him on 18 August of this year.’—In Memoriam, page v, The Silk Road.

Contents of vol. 13:

  • In Memoriam: Khaled al-Asaad, 1932-2015
  • Safe Journey! A Very Short History of Shoes from Korean Tombs, by Youngsook Pak
  • The Emergence of Light: A Re-interpretation of the Painting of Mani’s Birth in a Japanese Collection, by Wang Yuanyuan 王媛媛
  • When Herakles Followed the Buddha: Power, Protection and Patronage in Gandharan Art, by Jonathan Homrighausen
  • Ancient Iranian Decorative Textiles: New Evidence from Archaeological Investigations and Private Collections, by Matteo Compareti
  • Nomads and Oasis Cities: Central Asia from the 9th to the 13th Century, by Xinru Liu
  • Maes Titianus, Ptolemy, and the “Stone Tower” on the Great Silk Road, by Igor’ Vasil’evich P’iankov
  • The Location of Ptolemy’s Stone Tower: the Case for Sulaiman-Too in Osh, by Riaz Dean
  • The Test Excavation of the Nanhai No. 1 Shipwreck in 2011: a Detail Leading to the Whole, by Xu Yongjie 许永杰
  • The Archaeological Assessment of Pajadagh Fortress (Qal’a-e Tashvir), Tashvir Village, Tarom County, Zanjan Province, by Ali Nourallahi
  • Khermen Denzh Town in Mongolia, by Nikolai N. Kradin, Aleksandr L. Ivliev, Ayudai Ochir, Lkhagvasuren Erdenebold, Sergei Vasiutin, Svetlana Satantseva, and Evgenii V. Kovychev
  • The Chinese Inscription on the Lacquerware Unearthed from Tomb 20, Gol Mod I Site, Mongolia, by Chimiddorj Yeruul-Erdene and Ikue Otani
  • The Ancient Tamga-Signs of Southeast Kazakhstan and Their Owners: The Route from East to West in the 2nd Century BCE – 2nd Century CE, by Alexei E. Rogozhinskii and Sergey A. Yatsenko
  • Museum Collections: Assyrian-style Seals of the Silk Road and Their Relationship to Ties between Iran and Mesopotamia, by Amir Saed Mucheshi
  • “I was born a dervish and a Flying Dutchman.” Sven Hedin and Ferdinand von Richthofen: Introduction and Presentation of Unpublished Letters, by Felix de Montety
  • Museum Collections II: Berlin’s “Turfan Collection” Moves to the Center
, by Lilla Russell-Smith
  • The Mezquita: A Photo Essay, by Daniel C. Waugh

AIIT’s Flavour of the month…

When the trust was invited by Alan Alder, one of the regular presenters on Cambridge105’s Saturday food programme Flavour, to participate in a feature on food-related books in Cambridge libraries, we thought why not.

Although we are not known for our gastronomical collections, it was interesting to note how many books we discovered that were not just cookery books, but also included content on the social and cultural aspects of food in Indian, Zoroastrian and Central Asian life and history.

AIIT food books
From the collection of two of our founding trustees, Raymond and Bridget Allchin, there are cookery books such as Punjabi Cooking (Gill, P.T., 1984), and South Indian Recipes (Neela, Miss R., 1950); small volumes, mostly un-illustrated (with the exception of The Dalda Cookbook / Dalda Advisory Service, Bombay, 196?, see photo below) and densely packed with everyday recipes for roti, rice, dals, pickles, koftas and halwas; as well as many vegetarian and meat recipes for more substantial meals, including one for ‘curried partridge’ (p.67, Punjabi Cooking / P.T. Gill).

Dalda cookbook
Less unusual titles from the collection of two eminent archaeologists, are those on ancient food gatherers, hunters and farmers in ancient India, including; Food and Drinks in Ancient India (Prakash, Om, 1961, N F32B 12) and From Hunting and Food Gathering to Domestication of Plants and Animals: Beginnings of Agriculture (Sharma, G.R. et al, 1980, N F31E 15), which illustrate the story of subsistence from the earliest civilisations of the Indian subcontinent up to 1200 A.D.

Our collection from another archaeologist, Gregory Possehl, also includes both archaeological and anthropological books with themes that include: ancient farming and food-production, in Farming in Prehistory (Bender, B., 1975, FP592); cultural comparisions of the development of culinary practices around the world in Cooking, Cuisine and Class: a study in comparative sociology (Goody, J, 1982, FP771); studies of the development of food production in Aspects in South Asian Food Systems: Food, Society and Culture (Khare, R.S. & Rao, M.S.A., eds., 1986, FP599) and the superbly titled Human Evolution Cookbook (Dibble, Harold L., Williamson, D. & Evans, B.M., 2003, FP975), which claims to combine “…a dash of prehistory, a sprinkle of recipes, and a generous helping of humor…” and includes tempting recipes such as ‘Serengeti Scavenged Stew’ (see photo below), ‘Neanderthal Nibblers’ and ‘Glacial Gravlax’!

IMG_3425 IMG_3423
Two of the more unusual food-related titles in our collection are from the collection of Mongolian studies material, donated to the trust by Charles Bawden. Published in Cyrillic script, Malyn tsusyg khu̇nsėnd khėrėglėkh nʹ  (translated as ‘Using animal blood in food’) by TS. Gėndėnzhamts (1986, M F28H 18) and Khu̇nsniĭ bu̇tėėgdėkhu̇u̇n khadgalakh mȯsȯn zoorʹ  (translated as ‘Food products [of/in] cold storage’) by N. Lonzhid (1986, M F28H 23) are guides to the processes involving the preservation of blood for use in food, rather than books that contain specific culinary references. Historically, dating back to Genghis Khan, it was seen as taboo in Mongolia to spill or waste blood (see Francis Woodman Cleaves, The Secret History of the Mongols (Cambridge, MA, 1982, A15G 27), 140; also, Marco Polo, The Description of the World, eds. Moule & Pelliot (London, 1938, F44F 2) I, 199-200;) and thus publications that instruct on the preservation and use of blood do not seem that unusual in the reference collection of a Mongolian scholar.

Within the trust’s Persian collection are many references to Parsi food. There are guidelines in the Videvdad (Vendidad), within the sacred texts of the Avesta (B8A 60), emphasizing that people should eat and drink well so as to prevent their bodies from becoming weak and diseases to develop. Two articles on ‘The eating habits of the Parsis’ (Chalo, Jamva, pp 521-534) and ‘Parsi cuisine in the villages of Gujarat’ Dalal, Katy, pp 535-539), in A Zoroastrian Tapestry: art, religion & culture (eds. Godrej, Pheroze J. & Mistree, Firoza Punthakey, 2002, B8A 61). Both articles are illustrated and include some wonderful photographs of ‘…early twentieth century advertisements of the well known Irani bakeries and cafes in Bombay.’ (529, photo below).

parsi bakers ads final
The selection of books discussed on the programme ranged from Indian cookery books of the 1950s (all filled with recipes and nutritional advice); to Mongolian practical guides on how to store blood for cooking; to Parsi cuisine and the contrast between advice in the ancient Zoroastrian Videvdad texts and an online book of Zoroastrian recipes for feasts, celebrations and religious ceremonies, entitle Eat, Live, Pray. This recent publication included a feature on wine, which reminded us that Shiraz is a city in southwest Persia, and the grape was exported from there to countries around the world. It also has a recipe for Chai Creme Brulee, stating that it is also known as ‘Trinity Cream’ or Cambridge Burnt Cream, after the college where it debuted – something we thought was well worth a mention!

That the discoveries we made, whilst researching for this feature, were so diverse and not all scholarly in content highlights that when we accept collections of books into our library they can be eclectic and go well beyond the realm of the subject specialism, or that academic’s area of expertise.

For those of you who haven’t already tuned in to Flavour, it is aired fortnightly on Cambridge105 at 12pm and you can listen to a podcast of the edition that featured Alan’s conversation with our librarian, Jo Salisbury, which aired on Saturday 14th May.

Jo Salisbury


Donation for the Library Collection of Sir Roger Stevens

The Trust has recently received another generous donation to add to its collection of books on Iran, owned previously by Sir Roger Stevens (1906-1980), former British ambassador to Iran.

Sir Roger went to Iran in 1954 as Britain’s first ambassador after a two year break —the result of nationalization of the oil industry— and played a key role in rebuilding diplomatic relations. Although he served there for only four years, his enthusiasm for the people, art and history of Iran never left him. His main work was The Land of the Great Sophy (1962), but he also wrote on European travellers in Persia and other related subjects.

The newly acquired title is The Secret History of Persia…a 1745, leather-bound translation from the French original ‘Memoires secrets pour servir à l’histoire de Perse’, a political satire on France, variously attributed to Antoine Pecquet and Madame de Vieux-Maisons.  The 12º (duodecimo) edition includes the rather effusive sub-title : ‘containing a particular account, not only of that Kingdom, but also of the most considerable states of Asia; with the characters of their princes, and other persons distinguished by their birth, rank, qualities or employments’.

This edition will be added to the original collection of 63 titles, which dates from the early 1950s onwards and consists mostly of travel and art books.

Secret History of Persia cover shot Secret history of Persia title page shot

Please see Sir Roger Stevens’ books to view a pdf listing of his donated books in the AIIT library.

Sir Roger’s papers, including his correspondence and papers on Iran, were deposited in the Churchill Archives Centre by his widow, Lady Stevens, in 1984 (see

Library News – New Publications


AIIT Library has acquired two of the latest publications from the Corpus Fontium Manichaeorum: Manichaean texts in Syriac: First editions, new editions and studies, by Nils Arne Pedersen and John Møller Larsen, with contributions by Zsuzsanna Gulácsi and Myriam Krutzsch (Series Syriaca I) and Uygur Manichaean texts: texts, translations, commentary, Volume II: Liturgical texts, by Larry Clark (Series Turcica).  Both are published by Brepols (Turnhout, Belgium, ©2013).

Review of From the Oxus to Mysore in 1951

From the Oxus to Mysore in 1951 by Raymond and Bridget Allchin – published by Harding Simpole (2012).

Review by Anna Collar

Bridget and Raymond Allchin’s account of a year of archaeology and  travel in India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan in 1951 is an unusual combination of history, anecdote, memories and observation, switching between the voices of the authors. It opens with some extraordinary recollections of their early lives: Raymond throwing an (unopened) tin of tomato soup at his sister; dancing naked on the windowsills of their Ealing home on a hot summer evening; his first experiences of India and of learning Hindi as a serviceman in WWII; and watching an excruciating fire-walking ceremony in Singapore; Bridget falling headfirst into a stream at their Scottish farm while hunting for caddis-worms; teaching their South African cook to make drop-scones; witnessing the rise of Apartheid; and flying planes in the Orange Free State – including pulling out of a spin as part of her lessons, and the shopping trip with her instructor that required her to fly the plane back to his home, so laden down with food and drink that he had to sit outside, behind the wing.

They go on to describe their respective degrees, and their meeting at a lecture by Frederick Zeuner at the Institute of Archaeology, and the ex-serviceman’s grant that would cover Raymond’s year of leave to study the South Indian Neolithic: a grant that would also cover the fare of his wife, should he have one. Thus, Bridget and Raymond married after knowing each other for six months, and left for India together not three months later – after finding out, to their surprise, that they were expecting a baby. Episodes such as this and many others, recounted with understatement, make it a funny book, revealing much about the personalities of the pair, as well as making a serious contribution to the historiography of archaeology in India. Raymond’s gentle humour comes across as he describes reciting parts of the Rig Veda while saying grace at a Churchill College dinner; and Bridget’s tenacity is apparent throughout – the aplomb with which she copes with becoming a mother while in India is considerable; as is her determination, when rather unceremoniously left alone in Kabul, to photograph the entire contents of the Kabul Museum.

The main body of the book describes their adventures in Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, many of which involve their trusty Austin pickup and rivers in flood. Of the many friends and colleagues they make and meet along the way, most prominent is the somewhat suspicious figure of Raymond’s PhD supervisor, K. de B. Codrington (K. de B.), who simply refuses to allow Bridget to accompany he and Raymond to northern Afghanistan; makes injudicious radio broadcasts about the Pashtun desire for independence; commandeers their car for mysterious purposes in Calcutta; and is at one point described as ‘a man with an unrivalled ability to discover and create problems’! What is clear throughout, however, is that these two (very) young postgraduate students were of the highest intellectual calibre, and many of their observations, records and discoveries were ground-breaking – and continue to have a profound impact on our knowledge of the archaeology of India today. Their passion for the people, food, landscapes and archaeology of the Indian subcontinent is abundantly clear: Bridget comments, upon their arrival in Bombay, that ‘India was taking us over’. And how.


From the Oxus to Mysore in 1951, by Raymond and Bridget Allchin

12th October 2012 saw the publication of From the Oxus to Mysore in 1951 – The Start of a Great Partnership in Indian Scholarship, the much-awaited memoirs of a year in India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, by Raymond and Bridget Allchin.

Raymond and Bridget Allchin are legendary figures in the field of South Asian Archaeology. They led – as Sir Nicholas Barrington says in his introduction – ‘busy lives’, in the UK and made frequent archaeological trips to South Asia, weaving a partnership of overlapping areas of knowledge and skills. The story they tell here is first of their early years and influences, their very different experiences of World War II and the changes it brought, and of how they met, in London, in 1950. Within a year, they are married and setting out together on their first joint visit to India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

It is the narrative of this exciting and at times demanding journey that fills the rest of the book. History, anthropology, religion, politics and a detailed account of how the Allchins made a pioneering archaeological excavation of the prehistoric Piklihal site in southern India, spills of the page amid the practicalities of travel and daily life. There is variety of detail everywhere about bazaars, clothes, food and family homes and about cities and remote settlements. The book is a record of the scholars with whom they came into contact and of the friendship and hospitality they found everywhere in the subcontinent.

From the Oxus to Mysore in 1951 – The Start of a Great Partnership in Indian Scholarship, by Raymond and Bridget Allchin, is available for purchase now from the Ancient India and Iran Trust for £14.99 plus postage – please contact Anna Collar on info[at] or 01223 356841 to get a full price and to place your order. You can pay by cheque or online, via the ‘donate now’ button found here:

New Publications

July saw the publication, by Anthem Press, of two important volumes about Edward FitzGerald’s Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám

FitzGerald’s Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám: Popularity and Neglect (edited by Adrian Poole, Christine van Ruymbeke, William H. Martin and Sandra Mason) is based on a 2009 conference in Cambridge and celebrates the 150th anniversary of the first publication of FitzGerald’s Rubáiyát (1859) and the bicentenary of his birth (1859).

Edward FitzGerald’s Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám: A Famous Poem and Its Influence (Edited by William H. Martin and Sandra Mason) presents the texts of the three main versions (first, second and fourth) as they were originally published, together with the poet’s original notes and prefaces.  An accompanying commentary discussed the lives and work of Khayyám and FitzGerald, in addition to analysis of the poem’s message and discussion of the many varied adaptations.

For more in depth descriptions of these publications and details of how to order, please follow the link to our ‘Book News‘ page.

The Library of Sir Roger Stevens

The Trust has recently been given a collection of books on Iran owned previously by Sir Roger Stevens (1906-1980). Sir Roger went to Iran in 1954 as Britain’s first ambassador after a two year break—the result of nationalization of the oil industry—and played a key role in rebuilding diplomatic relations. Although he served there for only four years, his enthusiasm for the people, art and history of Iran never left him. His main work was The Land of the Great Sophy (1962), but he also wrote on European travellers in Persia and other related subjects.

The collection of 63 titles dates from the early 1950s onwards and consists mostly of travel and art books.

Sir Roger’s papers, including his correspondence and papers on Iran, were deposited in the Churchill Archives Centre by his widow, Lady Stevens, in 1984 (see